Wolfgang Weingart and New Wave Design

This weeks discussion I had to talk about Wolfgang Weingart and New Wave Design. New Wave Design is a style of typography which commonly break the rules of typography by usually using different typefaces, inconsistent letter spacing, unusual positioning of the lettering etc. Wolfgang is one of the most famous artists in the New Wave Design area, as he is known for popularizing it in the USA. To this day is looked upon as one of the best graphic designs for his methods and knowledge. Wolfgang was born in Germany in 1941, where he then grew up to become an independent graphic designer and teach many students, at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Basel, about graphic design using his methods and strategies.

“I took ‘Swiss Typography’ as my starting point, but then I blew it apart, never forcing any style upon my students. I never intended to create a “style.” – WolfGang Weingart

Since the time of Wolfgang Weingart many other artists/designers where influenced in the area of New Wave Design. Dan Friedman is another famous Graphic Designer categorized in this department, who was around in the early 1970s. Dan Friedman is well known by graphic designers as an inspiration as he is referred as one of the people who created what is known as the new typography in the United States. Wolfgang revolutionized the style of typography to what it is today, and really changed the way a lot of artists and designers went about with their designs. At the time Wolfgangs work was very inspirational for everyone in this field of work as it was a new and improved strategy of going about typography. His style has changed the style of typography that people use today and will use for times to come.

For this weeks discussion we decided to discuss why Weingart did created something different but never intended to make it a style.

As a group we started to discuss the style of Weingart work and we discussed the way he designed a lot of his work. We talked about the typographic elements he used, and how he would set up his design, printed, cut up and rearranged the design to create a new format that is commonly known today as the New Wave Design. He used a lot of photocopying techniques and half tone printing to add effect on the designs, and also collage techniques that had caught on quickly and was starting being seen in art and design in this era. We discussed how Weingart was influenced a lot by punk, as this was the style when he was designing, we looked at some of his work and found it clear that this was possibly one of his main influences, as a lot of his work related and had the same theme as a lot of the punk styled work, this style was also known as post modernism. We then also discussed how we felt his work became an international style, if it was unintended to, and we came to the conclusion that Weingart possibly told his students to create new and creative, where they then left and shared the his ideas around the world. Weingart never stuck to the grid and a lot of his work was less structured and would bleed off the page and he would also play around with the layers and positioning.

below i have decided to create a slideshow of some of my favorite Wolfgang Weingart work. i decided to choose the images i have also because i feel these really express what i have been talking about with his designs, and how he breaks the rules to create something much more unique and different. with these designs it is clear to see that he tends to ignore the grid rule by over laying images and using collages to break up the design. I feel a lot of this work i have displayed is very different to one another in the aspect of colour and layout, but the style is always consistant and he tends to always use this same type of style. it is also clear that his work is heavily influenced by punk, as you can see from the rip paper and bold text.

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Overall i feel that Weingart has revolutionized the style of design to what it is today, as he has used a lot of different techniques that would be considered as  breaking the rules, but has successfully arranged them to create effective and inspirational designs. i feel what Wolfgang has done is very effective as he has shown the world that it is more effective to create your own work, rather than following a trend. i also like that fact that Wolfgang unintentionally created a style that has influenced a lot of designers in the industry today.

Evaluation

For this project I was asked to create a web site design for my portfolio, I would have to successfully create my links and design for my website. The target audience for my website would be 16-35+, and anyone who is interested in graphic design. The website will be displaying work of mine from the first and second year of college. With my website I felt that I met all the outcomes of the brief, as I have complete what has been asked successfully, with my tutorials and also a fully functional website.

With this project I have learnt a lot of different techniques and skills throughout. As creating a website was new for me, everything was basically new for me. I used Dreamweaver to create my website which was something different for me, where I had to insert Divtags, Images and Text. To place the images into my website I had to edit them in Photoshop and save them to web, which again was also different for me as I had to play around with the settings and pixels etc.  I feel that I successfully completed all of these outcomes and also inserted all my information correctly. At first I had to draw up some initial thumbnails that would help me when it came to creating the layouts in InDesign, software I am familiar with. And once my layout was complete I would then progress my designs in Dreamweaver.

I researched a variety of different websites from a lot of different agencies, where I felt helped me in creating a lot of my designs. I looked at a lot of different types of websites from sport to fashion, so I could get an insight how a lot of companies layout their sites. A lot of these websites helped gave me my inspiration for when it came to creating my website, as I felt that a lot of them where very creative and different, and some of the designs where very simple and effective. Through my work it is clear a lot of my designs and layouts are from inspiration from my research that has inspired me.

For my final designs I felt the home page was possibly my most successful feature, as I managed to make the image into a link and also use navigation along the top of the site that would take the viewer to different parts of my website. I also felt that my portfolio page, where the boxes of my work where, was also very successful as it was very easy to navigate your way through. I felt that once the viewer accessed a lot of my work it was very easy navigate your way through, back to home and other parts of my website. The hardest part of the project was possibly working in Dreamweaver and getting used to it, as I felt it was very difficult to use, but once I had got the hang of it I find it very effective and useful. If I was to improve anything in the project it would possibly be placing more appropriate images into my website, as I felt some of them where awkward sizes and I had to adjust a lot of my Divtags to fit in with them. I felt this project went very well and I felt that I met the outcomes of the brief and I created an effective and useful website for my portfolio.

Frank Pick and the London Underground

For this week’s discussions, we discussed Frank Pick and the London Underground Design and promotion. Frank Pick, who was born on 23rd November 1978, was a British transport administrator and was responsible for the London Underground designs, where he hired Edward Johnston to create the actual design for the Underground, and Harry Beck to design the map. Becks maps where in fact used as inspiration around the world for many different maps such as planes, trains and road maps, mainly due to the fact it was so simple and easy to read and follow. After the first world war in 1919 the designs where all re-designed, to mark a change and a new beginning, but since then, they have stayed the same and are still used today. The underground started to advertise different events located in London city, this was mainly so that a lot more people would use the underground to get the events easier. Edward Johnston, when he came to designing the logo, decided to replace the solid red circle for a white circle making it much more modern. Frank Pick promoted the underground with lots of various posters so people would start to use the underground a lot more.

For the discussion this week, we discussed what it was about the design of the underground that made it so successful.

As a group we stated that the designs where so successful as they were bright, bold and eye catching, and also, the colours used in the stations making it easy to read and follow. We discussed how the logo used bright contrasting colours that would make it recognisable from a distance and make it clear where about the undergrounds where located, and making it easy to spot from a distance. We also talked about how the logo was very versatile and could be easily resized and placed in different places mainly due to the simple shapes and colours. In the logo we discussed the typeface and why the designer used this specific typeface, we discovered that the typeface in the underground design was actually created by Calligrapher, Edward Johnston and it was an exclusive typeface. The letter ‘O’ in the actual font is a perfect circle and we discussed that this could be down to geometric shapes of the designs.

As well as the logo, we discussed the map and why it was so influential to many other different countries and map designers. And we came to the conclusion that it was all down to the simplicity of it and the basic coloured lines that made it so easy to follow. we all felt that the map has possibly stayed the same for so many years as it is so simple and easy to read that it doesn’t need any improvement, and is thought as, as one of the best pieces of information graphics in the world. We started to discuss what influences the designers could have been influenced by, and we came to the conclusion that they were possibly influenced by Bauhaus and Swiss Typography, mainly due to the bold colours and basic shapes used.

We started talking about the underground posters and discussed why they were so successful. Mainly because the underground was affordable and easily accessible for people, but also the fact that the underground promoted other events that would encourage people to use the underground. We found out that Frank Pick had a variety of different artists to design the posters for him, which was very effective back then as it promoted the artist’s work as well as the underground. The designs of the posters where all very relevant to the designs of the maps, so that the underground designs where consistent and also recognisable.

As a group we shared at the end of the discussion what we had learnt and what we found helpful from the discussion. I stated that I was impressed with how the design of the underground where so simple and effective that throughout the years nothing has had to be altered or improved to make it better because it is good enough as it is.

this is a slide show i created, that contains posters from the time the London Underground was first created. These posters where enforced by Frank Pick where he got someone to design and create them. i feel that these designs are very creative as they are very similar to the posters that where around during WW2, but i feel this could have been because they where around the same era and the design back then could have been very similar to this. I feel in a way these designs had a hint of Propaganda to them as they where trying to convince people that taking the underground was the best way to get around london, and it would be harder to see things with out taking it. but i feel they were still very successful and creative and got the message across well.

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Overall i feel the London Underground has been one of the most successful designs in history, as it has had such a massive effect on other designers. I really like the way that the London Underground maps have were so well designers that other designers started to use this style to create other maps for different forms of traveling as it was so simple and easy to read. I also like how simple and effective the logo is as, despite it being very basic, it is a logo that is well recognizable and easily seen from a distance, which is a very important thing for the designer to bare in mind. I feel that the London Underground designs have been very successful over the years and have really changed the way people design information graphics nowadays.

Propaganda …

This week’s discussion was about Propaganda and how it influential it has been to modern day graphic design. The discussion was based around what propaganda is and how it is used to manipulate people.

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Propaganda is a way to convince citizens by false information or twisting the truth, it was a very successful technique used mainly throughout World War 2, were the government used the media to try and convince the public to join the army and serve their country in the war, they made out that the people that didn’t join the army where selfish and bad for not wanting to join, they also made people look down on them. It made the public believe that everything the government was right and for the good, which was sort of brainwashing the public into believing anything the government said. A lot of the designs where very emotionally attached and normally got the public questioning whether what they were doing was wrong. Propaganda was also heavily linked to the designs of Russian Revolution and Russian Constructivism, mainly because of the colours used and the style of the designs. The way propaganda was used in WW2 has been very effective and has affected advertisements now, as they still use Propaganda but just notas heavily as it was possibly used back during the war. A lot of advertising now is still quite persuasive and still twist the truth to try and convince the public into buying something. A lot of charities tend to use this technique by making you feel guilty and make you donate money to the charities. It makes the public think all the money they donate goes to charities when in fact only a certain amount is donated to the charities and the organization keep the rest. The Barrack Obama poster about hope is possibly one most iconic images of recent propaganda around at the moment, as since the World War it wasn’t really been used that much to persuade peoples opinions. The poster is very effective as it does make the public believe there is hope, but the propaganda comes into it when because it is making the public believe that voting for Obama will bring hope to their country.

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Propaganda isn’t necessarily bad, it is just perceived as bad due to the way it was used in bad ways in the past. Can be the truth in some occasions, but it is the way that the government and the media portray it to how the audience tend to see it. It is a very effective technique, as it does tend to help the government get a message across and get what they want, by sort of brain washing the audience into believing anything they want them to believe.

i have inserted in this slideshow below, images from World War 2, that where classed as propaganda. i decided to chose these images as they are one of the most famous examples of propaganda and i feel that they really express what propaganda is. These posters where displayed around the UK and giving the public false or in accurate information that would manipulate them into doing what the country wanted them to do. I feel the posters are very creative as they are very artistic which would help make the public want to see what the poster is advertising. I feel because of this style being involved in propaganda, it never really caught on, but instead just became art.

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Overall i feel that the Propaganda posters where, in a way, very creative and where very inspirational for other designers, as it sort of gave them all a guideline of how to engage the audiences attention and also how they people could manipulate people into thinking how the designer thinks. i feel the work is very interesting as well, as each of the posters where very detailed and have a lot of time put into them, where as now it would be more digitally based. Personally i feel the propaganda designs are very creative as it can grab the attention of the public and can help change their mind, through just the art of design.

Swiss Typography and Jan Tshichold

This week’s discussion was about Swiss Typography and Jan Tschichold. Swiss Typography was developed by Jan Tschichold in Switzerland in the early 1920’s. Tschichold was influenced mainly by the Soviet Constructivism, Russian Constructivism and the Bauhaus. You can tell Bauhaus was one of his influences as his style of was changed not long after a visit to an exhibition held at the Bauhaus. A lot of other famous designs were developed around this era that was seeing today such as Kellogg’s, Budweiser etc.

For this week’s Discussion we discussed what the influences of Jan Tschichold did to make him reject the traditional typography style at the time of his designs.

As a group we started to discuss how Tschichold’s style changed once he had attended the Bauhaus exhibition. We felt that Tschichold possibly took the Bauhaus style and tried to re-develop it into a style of his own creating something much more different. The principles of the Swiss Typography and Bauhaus were both very similar as they both wanted to create something well structured. As well as Bauhaus we also discussed how El Lizzitsky, a well-known Russian Constructivism Designer, was also a main influence for Tschichold, as when you compare the work of one another’s you can see how similar their work was, as they both used simple shapes and basic colours. Tschichold designed a variety of typeface that were legible for everyday use, he did this by cleaning up other existing typefaces that would be much more suitable for basic things such as signs and posters. All of the typefaces he created where mostly san serif bold and clear, and all these typefaces are referred to as Universal. We talked about the events that where happening at the time of Jan Tschichold’s designs. We discussed when he was arrested because his ideas were rejected for not being good enough and then later placed into a concentration camp, where he was shortly released from. We discussed that he then moved to Switzerland to get away from the war, and they weren’t involved in it therefore it being safer for him. During Tschichold’s time in Switzerland his typefaces he created became very popular and where even used by a few different companies. During this time Typography in designs also became very popular and a lot more companies started using typography in their designs, mainly due to the typefaces being so much more legible.

During our discussion we came to the point where we realised that Swiss Style Typography was the International Style, where we discussed that the Swiss style first started off in Switzerland were it was then quickly spread worldwide because of the popularity it was quirkily gaining. Swiss Typography slowly came to the UK when Tschichold moved to England and started working for Penguin Book, where he completely re-designed their books and set a layout that penguin then used for every single one of the their published books. Jan made a deal with the company once he had design the books and asked them to promise that they would keep the design, which has, to this day, stayed the same throughout the years of the re-design. in the late 50’s Swiss Typography was then Renamed as the International Style due to how big it became internationally. We went on to discuss what happened after the war and how design changed. We started talking about pop art that was soon introduced as a result of music and pop culture becoming massive influences to designers. We also talked about how we felt that the designs in this era where another development on what was already very popular at the time of the designs.

We then went on to think of what we had learnt in this discussion or what we felt was very useful to know. Where I said I felt that it was incredible how Jan Tschichold altered existing typefaces to something more illegible, and from this created a worldwide design cycle that many other designers and companies pick up on.

with the slideshow that i have inserted onto this page, it is image i found that where relatable to the Swiss Typography style, which i felt was very effective. i found 5 images that where relatable to the swiss typography style and from this it is clear that the style is very different to the others that i have looked at, as it is much more basic but interesting at the same time. again like Bauhaus and Russian Constructivism, they use a lot of red and white, this could be because they want to make it relatable to recent designs. I really like this Swiss Typography style and these pictures help express why it has become so inspirational.

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Overall i feel that Swiss Typography is very helpful and creative as it was something very different to what was happening back when it started. i really like the way that Jan Tschichold took the Bauhaus style but tried to re-develop it, as it helps make an old style much more modern and relatable to the target audience in today. I really like the style that Swiss typography use as, very much like Bauhaus and Russian Constructivism they use a strict colour pallet and keep a lot of their designs consistant. i feel that this style was very influential as it was an original design style, that had been re-developed.

 

Push Pin Studios

This week’s discussion was about Push Pin Studios. Push Pin studios started in 1954 and was based in the city of New York in America. It was a design agency that was created by 3 well known artists today Milton Glaser, Seymour Chwast and Edward Sorel. Milton Glaser is known for his iconic work of the ‘I ❤ New York’ logo he created and Seymour and Edward where also well-known artists from this era. Push Pins where well known for making successful things such as posters, magazines and record sleeves.

For this discussion we decided to talk about why Push Pin Studios Stick to the illustrative style and not the harsh style of the time.

We started off discussing about push pin and what they had done across the years to get to where they are at now. We talked about how push pins originally started off as just a magazine designed by four graduates who later on decided that they should start their own design agency. We noticed a lot of things in Push Pin designs that were relatable to the era they were around. and we started to talk about the musical ‘Grease’, as from some of the clips we were shown, some people felt it was quite relevant to the film. We also picked up on the influences this era had on the designs such as, music, cars, dance, fashion, diners etc. which, we felt, could have been one of the main reasons Push Pins started to create record sleeves. We also talked about how the music could have influenced the company with their designs. we felt that the design of push pins was very bold and they used a lot of bright colours and block shapes, which then also led us on to talk about the International Style., and how the designs where very similar to Bauhaus and Russian Constructivism with the use of shapes and colours. Other designs we felt could have influenced Push Pins was Paul rand, who was very famous for his IBM logo and using simple shapes and colours.

We began to discuss the typography used in the push pin designs, and we talked about how the typeface was very bold and block like and that the font fit well within the International Style. We also looked at a famous Push Pin poster called ‘End Bad Breath’ which was a poster of Big Sam that was publicized around during World War 2. Which then led us all on to believe that Push Pin where in fact about the war. This poster was about the social comment that became a theme throughout most of the designs the Push Pins later produced. This then brought us on to talking about other relevant things that were happening at the time of Push Pin, and we mentioned racism that was a massive talking point back then, which then also led us onto believing that a lot of push pins designs could have been influenced by this. Push Pin then became an agency instead of just a magazine. We also talked about the style of push pin and how they were massively influenced by pop art and comic books, which is quite clear when you look through the designs that push pins have produced throughout the years, from the use of colours and shapes and the style of their designs.

We then all discussed what we had learnt or what we found interesting about the discussion. I said that I found it interesting how push pins was created by 3 designers that originally just made magazines, but due to their unique style and originality furthered into becoming and agency.

I decided to insert a slideshow containing some of Push Pins designs, that i felt where the most successful and interesting. I chose these images as i felt that they where the most important images that show the sort of style push pin normally take, as they tend to use a lot more colours in their designs unlike Bauhaus and Russian Constructivism. From this slideshow a lot of their work is hand created, as a lot of the images in them look very hand drawn, which i think is why they where very successful as their work was very different to the style of design in the past.

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Overall i feel that Push Pins was very inspirational and creative. I feel that because the creators of Push Pin have become successful designers now, it helps give the company the popularity it deserves. i really like the Push Pin Studios style as i feel it was very different and was really unique to what the style was back in the time of when it started. i really like how all of their work looks as if it was hand created which i think gives it that much more personal feel and also helps make the design look much more appealing towards all sets of audience. i think that Push Pins was successful as it was different and was very unique to what design looked like back then and also it was created by 3 top designers.

Russian Constructivism

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This Weeks Discussion was on Russian Constructivism. Russian Constructivism was a movement that was mainly active from 1913 to the late 1940’s. It was a movement that was created by the Russian Avant-grant, but was quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Russian Constructivism is mainly uses the use of basic colours and bold shapes that normally make their average designs. in the 20th century, Russian Constructivism had a massive effect on modern art and movements, which led on to influence trends such as Bauhaus. They mainly wanted to get a message across in the majority of their designs. There were a few famous designers in the region such as Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich and El Lissitzky.

We decided to choose a question that would start us of on a discussion on this topic. So we decided to ask the question why Russian Constructivism is so structured.

We started to talk about the time Russian Constructivism started, when we discovered the movement first started in 1913, which was around the time of World War 1 and the Russian Revolution. This sort of explained why a lot of the designs were designed the way they were, due to era they were produced. The designs often included a lot of straight lines and geometric shapes with block colours, which we felt was very effective and very recognisable. Due to the Russian Revolution being around the time of this movement we started to think of ways in which Constructivism was designed the way it was. We noticed that Russian Constructivism was mainly done to get women votes and equal right, and also opportunities for the rich and poor, which helped us into believing that this movement in fact helped change in the rights. But the work, due to the era, was also propaganda as the work was very open and demanding, but also very different to the designs in World War as it was aimed towards the public and trying to get them to change. Russian Constructivism’s aim was to mainly give art a meaning instead of just having it for art’s sake, where the quote ‘Not Have Art, For Arts Sake’ came from.’ They all wanted people to see the message intended in the designs and not just see the designs for an attractive picture. This was all done by the way they designed their work, which was by using bold striking colours and geometric shapes that would engage the audience. We then felt that from this movement, design in general was completely revolutionized, as people started to design pieces of art with more meaning behind them. Therefore people starting to take art a lot more seriously. From this it led us onto talking about how it didn’t just have an influence on art, but also music, as you can see from the Franz Ferdinand Video I attached which shows the use of Russian Constructivism elements in it. the colours the movement use, Red, Black and White, we later found out where in fact colours from the government party that were running for the revolution at the time.

We then, as a group, came up with something we found interesting or learnt in today’s discussion. I said that I found it interesting how influential the movement was and how much it has changed design throughout the years, and how inspirational it has been for designers and even musicians, such as Franz Ferdinand.

i decided to insert a slideshow of my favorite Russian Constructivism images that i felt where the most successful and what helped show the style and theme of Russian Constructivism. As well as designs from the era of when this was all popular i have also inserted some recent design that have been used form bands (Franz Ferdinand and Rage Against), I decided to insert these as i liked how still to today Russian Constructivism is a big part of design and a lot of people are still influenced by it. These images, i feel, really express what Russian Constructivism was all about and really showed the main style of their designs.

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Overall i feel that Russian Constructivism has been very inspirational and still, from the images in the slideshow, is used today for modern day art. I feel the designs where very modern and relatable, which helps make it still to this day, very effective and creative. I also like how the colours are very strict, Red, Black and White which is very similar to the Bauhaus, but Russian Constructivism is much more modern, and a lot more relatable as a lot of it was displayed for public awareness, where as now it is just art. The colours are very bold and striking, but this could have possibly been down to the fact that the designs where for public awareness, so the aim was to grab people attention.